nutrtion and metabolism.png
urinary system.jpg
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance and remove a type of waste, called urea, from the blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys,where ii is removed.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow.
Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney
Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney

Respiratory System: Oxygen Delivery System

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood.
Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen then passes through the larynx (where speech sounds are produced) and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The average adult's lungs contain about 600 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale.
The diaphragm's job is to help pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity. As the diaphragm contracts and relaxes, breathing takes place. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.
digestive system.gif
Lymphatic system-
Interferon is a small protein compound that plays a very significant role in producing immunity from viral is produced by T cell within hr after they have been infected by a virus.

Skeletal system-
difference between man and woman pelvis.
Notice the narrower width of the male pelvis, giving it a more funnel-like shape than the female pelvis. the insets show how the hand can be used to show how the pubic angles differ.

Blood system:
Blood clotting...the extremely complex clotting mechanism can be distilled into three basic steps.-release of clotting factors from both injured tissue cells and stiky platelet at the injury site.-series of chemical reactions that eventually result in formation of thrombin-formation of fibrin and trapping of RBCs to form a clot.-RBCs and WBCs entrapped in a fibrin mesh during clot formation. This has a good music video for the reproductive system

Female Reproductive System (diagram)
Female Reproductive System (diagram)

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Anatomy of the Urinary System

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Anatomy of the Urinary System

Illustration of the anatomy of the urinary system, front view
Illustration of the anatomy of the urinary system, front view

Click Image to Enlarge

How do the kidneys and urinary system work?

The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance and remove a type of waste, called urea, from the blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys,where ii is removed.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney
Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney

Click Image to Enlarge

external image KidneyAnatomy.jpg

Kidney and urinary system parts and their functions:

  • two kidneys-a pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine; keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood; and produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells.

    The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
  • two ureters-narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, a kidney infection can develop. About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.
  • bladder-a triangle-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to two cups of urine for two to five hours.
  • two sphincter muscles-circular muscles that help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder.
  • nerves in the bladder-alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder.
  • urethra-the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.

Facts about urine:

  • Adults pass about a quart and a half of urine each day, depending on the fluids and foods consumed.
  • The volume of urine formed at night is about half that formed in the daytime.
  • Normal urine is sterile. It contains fluids, salts and waste products, but it is free of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
  • The tissues of the bladder are isolated from urine and toxic substances by a coating that discourages bacteria from attaching and growing on the bladder wall.

Respiratory System: Oxygen Delivery System

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood.
Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen then passes through the larynx (where speech sounds are produced) and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The average adult's lungs contain about 600 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale.

The diaphragm's job is to help pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity. As the diaphragm contracts and relaxes, breathing takes place. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.
Functions of Blood System
Transport: to and from tissue cellsNutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as [[#|lipoproteins]]).Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4 x O2 molecules/haemoglobin).Wastes from cells: urea, CO2 (mainly as HCO3- in solution in the plasma).Temperature Regulation: by altering the blood flow through the skin.Immunity: protection against pathogens — blood clotting; phagocytes, lymphocytes and antibodies distributed in blood.Communication: hormones distributed to all parts of the body in the blood.Defence:clotting following a woundComposition of BloodPlasmapale yellow sticky liquid; 55% of blood volume.Components: water 92%, dissolved protein 8%, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals (mainly NaCl), urea, CO2, hormones, antibodies.Blood CellsRed Blood CellsTiny (8μ) biconcave disc-shaped cells (thus large SA).Do not have nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes.cell full of haemoglobin – binds O2 (and CO).Made in the bone marrow – live about 120 days.Destroyed and recycled by the liver.[[#|White Blood Cells]](leucocytes)These are colourless cells and possess a nucleus.They function in defending the body against pathogens.Phagocytes - ‘granulocytes’ ‘feed’ on pathogens by phagocytosis.Monocytes are one form of phagocytes.Lymphocytes – ‘agranulocytes’ - produce antibodies, the specific defence proteins.Made in bone marrow and lymphatic tissue.PlateletsResponsible for clotting of the bloodResponsible for repair of damaged tissue – releasing the hormone platelet growth factor.• Short life – under 7 days.• Made in bone marrow Blood VesselsArtery v. veinThe wall of the artery is thicker: thicker connective tissue layer, thicker mixed layer of muscle and elastic tissue.The lumen of the artery is much narrower.Arteries do not have valves along their length, veins do.Valves in the veins prevent the backflow of blood so the flow is in one correct direction towards the heart.Blood flows away from the heart in arteries; blood flows towards the heart in veins.Blood pressure in arteries is higher and so also the speed of blood flowPulsed flow in an artery, steady flow in a vein.Many tissues, thus both are organsArterioleshave muscular walls which control how much blood flows to a particular organ – e.g.• guts after meal,• skin for temperature regulation• muscle when working hardNote: Blood supply to brain is constant!

•Capillaries are the link between arteries and veins – where exchange with tissues occurs.
• The capillary wall is one cell thick and somewhat porous — ideal to allow materials to pass in and out.
•All tissue cells very close to a capillary so exchange is very efficient.
•Exchange at the capillaries is by diffusion, mass flow and active transport.
•Blood flow in capillaries is slow giving enough time for effective exchange.
One type of cell, thus a tissue.

Closed System of Blood Vessels

•The blood does not make direct contact with the tissue cells.

•The blood is retained in the blood vessels.

•A closed system is very responsive to the change needs of the organs and is highly efficient.

Double Circulation

The double circuit prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Therefore oxygen supply is highly efficient.
Pulmonary Circulation
: deoxygenated blood flows from the heart to the lungs
• oxygen is taken on and carbon dioxide is excreted,
• oxygenated blood flows from the lungs back to the heart.
Systemic Circulation
: oxygenated blood flows from the heart to the organ systems of the body.
• oxygen is delivered and carbon dioxide is taken on,
• deoxygenated blood flow from the organs systems back to the heart.
Portal System
•A portal blood vessel has a set of capillaries at each end.

•The hepatic portal vein carries blood rich in absorbed nutrients from the capillaries in the gut to capillaries in the liver.

Hepatic artery supplies liver with O2

Hepatic vein takes all the blood away from the liver, back to heart.

The Heart
• The heart is a double pump. • The right atrium collects deoxygenated blood from all parts (vena cava). • The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs (for gas exchange = O2, CO2) (pulmonary artery) •The left atrium collects oxygenated blood from the lungs (pulmonary vein) •The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to all parts (aorta). •The right and left side fill and empty in unison. •Each chamber pumps the same volume of blood. •The wall of the left ventricle is about three times thicker than that of the right ventricle. •The left ventricle needs more cardiac muscle to give the blood a much stronger push. •Blood pressure therefore highest in left ventricleCardiac output = stroke volume x pulse rate Heart action •Blood enters the atria, filling them. (= atrial diastole) •The sino-atrial node (= SAN) in the right atrium generates a nerve impulse causing the atria to contract (atrial systole) •The sympathetic nerve impulses increase heart rate •The vagus nerve impulses decrease heart rate •Blood pressure in atria rises above that in ventricles •Blood forced into the ventricles (AV valves open). •The impulse arrives at the atrio-ventricular node (= AVN)Impulse delayed (0.2 s) giving time for ventricles to fill (ventricular diastole). •The impulse enters the ventricles and travels through the Bundle of His (in septum). •The ventricles contract and force the blood out of the pulmonary artery and aorta (ventricular systole). •The AV valves close preventing blood returning to the atria. •The semi-lunar valves are pushed open by the higher blood pressure in the ventricles. •The elastic artery walls expand (=a pulse). •When the blood pressure falls the arteries recoil squeezing the blood away from the heart. •Ventricular blood pressure falls, closing the semilunar valves.
the arteries.heart_diagram.gif
external image Fetal-circulation-1011181.png

This prevents blood flowing back into the ventricles from
Cardiac cycle
: relaxed cardiac muscle — the heart fills with blood under low pressure from the veins.
: cardiac muscle contracting — the chambers of the heart are emptying of blood.

Atrial Systole: contraction and emptying of the atria supplying extra blood to the ventricles.

Ventricular Systole: contraction and emptying of the ventricles ejecting blood from the heart into the arteries.

Cardiac Muscle

The muscle making up the heart is called cardiac muscle.

It is myogenic, i.e., stimulates itself to contract — does not need external stimulation.

It is an involuntary, strong muscle that does not fatigue (no anaerobic respiration).

external image index_clip_image001.jpg

A small area of cardiac muscle in the wall of the right atrium, near entry of vena cava.

Its automatic rhythmic contraction starts each cardiac cycle.

Two nerves from the medulla oblongata connect to it influencing its rate of contraction.

One nerve accelerates the heart rate and the other reduces it back to resting rate.

Factors affecting heart rate:
Since the heart can only pumpout the blood that is returned to it, the primary cause of increased cardiac output when exercising, is blood to the heart caused by the muscles squeezing the veins.
Increase: exercise, increased body temperature, stress, mental excitement, infection.

Decrease: increased physical fitness, sleep, and mental relaxation.

Coronary circulation

•The blood flowing through the heart does not supply the heart with blood

Coronary artery supplies heart muscle with blood

•No coronary vein – directly drains back in diastole.

Major blood vessels:

: Aorta; Pulmonary (CO2, O2); Carotid (neck); Renal; Hepatic
: Vena Cava; Pulmonary (CO2, O2); Renal; Jugular; Hepatic; Hepatic Portal;
Blood Pressure
•The pressure varies along the circuit – measured with sphygmomanometer
•Pressure decreases in the following order:

ventricle > artery > arteriole > capillary > venule > vein > atrium.

•Standard healthy readings: 80 mm Hg diastolic, 120 mm Hg systolic.

Formation of Tissue Fluid
•As the blood enters the capillaries the high hydrostatic pressure forces some of the plasma out through the wall.
•The escaped fluid (tissue fluid) is similar in composition to plasma, but lower in protein.
•Therefore the remaining blood has a lower water potential
•And a lower hydrostatic pressure
•At the venule end the hydrostatic pressure is lower
•The 10% excess tissue fluid must be drained away – by the lymphatic system.

The Lymphatic System

A collection of special drainage vessels receiving excess tissue fluid.
•Once the tissue fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries it is called
•Lymph nodes (e.g. tonsils) filter the lymph and produce lymphocytes.
•The lymph vessels have many valves, but low pressure.
•The lymph is moved along by the squeezing action of:
the skeletal muscles,
pressure changes in the thorax during breathing and
by the rhythmic contraction of the lymph vessel walls.
•Lymph re-enters the blood just before the right atrium.

Functions of the Lymphatic System:
Circulatory role

Return the excess tissue fluid to the blood: this maintains blood volume, pressure and concentration.

Collect and deliver the absorbed lipids from the small intestine to the blood

Defence role

The lymph nodes filter out pathogens in the lymph.

Production and ‘export’ of lymphocytes to the blood system for general distribution.

Detection of antigens and production of specific antibodies. © IHW March 2005

Immune System

The immune system is a complex system of biological structures and processes within the human body which protects a person from disease by locating, identifying and destroying infectious agents (called pathogens) and tumor cells. The immune system can identify a number of different disease agents: everything from viruses and bacteria to parasitic worms. It efficiently differentiates between these invaders and the body's own healthy tissues and cells. This process of detection is quite complicated due to the rapid evolution of most pathogens; they quickly adapt so they can avoid the body's immune system and continue to infect their hosts.

The immune system includes the body's white blood cells, antibodies, T cells and other cells which identify and attack pathogens and tumor cells.

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is important to the body's defense mechanisms. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces certain white blood cells and generates antibodies. It is also important for the distribution of fluids and nutrients in the body, because it drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell up. Lymph is a milky body fluid that contains a type of white blood cells, called lymphocytes, along with proteins and fats. Lymph seeps outside the blood vessels into the spaces of body tissues and is then stored in the lymphatic system to flow back into the bloodstream. Through the flow of blood in and out of arteries, and into the veins, and through the lymph nodes and into the lymph, the body is able to eliminate the products of cellular breakdown and bacterial invasion. It is through the actions of this system - which includes the spleen, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph ducts - that our body is able to fight infection. Lymph plays an important role in the immune system and in absorbing fats from the intestines.

The lymphatic vessels are present wherever there are blood vessels; they transport excess fluid to the end vessels without the assistance of any pumping action, such as is found in the cardiovascular system. There are more than 100 lymph nodes in the human body; these tiny, oval structures are mainly in the neck, groin and armpits, but there are several scattered all along the lymph vessels. They act as barriers to infection by filtering out and destroying toxins and germs. The largest body of lymphoid tissue in the human body is the spleen.


external image f09a.jpg

[ Major lymphatic landmarks ]
[ Major lymphatic landmarks ]

Major lymphatic ducts. (Courtesy of NIH/NCI)
  • The lymphatic system aids the immune system in removing and destroying waste, debris, dead blood cells, pathogens, toxins, and cancer cells.
  • The lymphatic system absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system and delivers these nutrients to the cells of the body where they are used by the cells.
  • The lymphatic system also removes excess fluid, and waste products from the interstitial spaces between the cells.
Arterial blood carries oxygen, nutrients, and hormones for the cells. To reach these cells it leaves the small arteries and flows into the tissues. This fluid is now known as interstitial fluid and it delivers its nourshing products to the cells. Then it leaves the cell and removes waste products.
After this task is complete, 90% of this fluid returns to the circulatory system as venous blood.
The remaining 10% of the fluid that stays behind in the tissues as a clear to yellowish fluid known as lymph.
  • Unlike blood, which flows throughout the body in a continue loop, lymph flows in only one direction within its own system. This flow is only upward toward the neck. Here, it flows into the venous blood stream through the subclavien veins which are located on either sides of the neck near the collarbones.
  • After plasma has delivered its nutrients and removed debris, it leaves the cells. 90% of this fluid returns to the venous circulation through the venules and continues as venous blood.
  • The remaining 10% of this fluid becomes lymph which is a watery fluid that contains waste products. This waste is protein-rich due to the undigested proteins that were removed from the cells.
The lymph is moved through the body in its own vessels making a one-way journey from the interstitial spaces to the subclavian veins at the base of the neck.
  • Since the lymphatic system does not have a heart to pump it, its upward movement depends on the motions of the muscle and joint pumps.
  • As it moves upward toward the neck the lymph passes through lymph nodes which filter it to remove debris and pathogens.
  • The cleansed lymph continues to travel in only one direction, which is upward toward the neck.
  • At the base of the neck, the cleansed lymph flows into the subclavian veins on either side of the neck.
external image 161
Lymph returning to the
subclavian veins. © Lymph Notes
Lymph originates as plasma (the fluid portion of blood). The arterial blood, which flows out of the heart, slows as it moves through a capillary bed. This slowing allows some plasma to leave the arterioles (small arteries) and flow into the tissues where it becomes tissue fluid.
  • Also known as extracellular fluid, this is fluid that flows between the cells but is not into the cells. This fluid delivers nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to the cells.
  • As this fluid leaves the cells, it takes with it cellular waste products and protein cells.
  • Approximately 90% of this tissue fluid flows into the small veins. Here it enters the venous circulation as plasma and continues in the circulatory system.
  • The remaining 10% of the fluid that is left behind is known as lymph.
In order to leave the tissues, the lymph must enter the lymphatic system through specialized lymphatic capillaries. Approximately 70% of these are superficial capillaries located near, or just under, the skin. The remaining 30%, which are known as deep lymphatic capillaries, surround most of the body’s organs.
Lymphatic capillaries [[#|begin]] as blind-ended tubes that are only a single cell in thickness. These cells are arranged in a slightly overlapping pattern, much like the shingles on a roof. Each of these individual cells is fastened to nearby tissues by an anchoring filament.
The lymphatic capillaries gradually join together to form a mesh-like network of tubes that are located deeper in the body.
  • As they become larger, and deeper, these structures become lymphatic vessels.
  • Deeper within the body the lymphatic vessels become progressively larger and are located near major blood veins.
  • Like veins, the lymphatic vessels, which are known as lymphangions, have one-way valves to prevent any backward flow.
  • Smooth muscles in the walls of the lymphatic vessels cause the angions to contract sequentially to aid the flow of lymph upward toward the thoracic region. Because of their shape, these vessels are previously referred to as a string of pearls.
[ Interior of a lymph node ]
[ Interior of a lymph node ]

Lymph nodes kill pathogens and cancer cells.
They also remove debris and excess fluid. © Lymph Notes
There are between 600-700 lymph nodes present in the average human body. It is the role of these nodes to filter the lymph before it can be returned to the circulatory system. Although these nodes can increase or decrease in size throughout life, any nodes that has been damaged or destroyed, does not regenerate.
  • Afferent lymphatic vessels carry unfiltered lymph into the node. Here waste products, and some of the fluid, are filtered out.
  • In another section of the node, lymphocytes, which are specialized white blood cells, kill any pathogens that may be present. This causes the swelling commonly known as swollen glands.
  • Lymph nodes also trap and destroy cancer cells to slow the spread of the cancer until they are overwhelmed by it.
  • Efferent lymphatic vessels carry the filtered lymph out of the node so that it can continue its return to the circulatory system.
Lymphatic system drainage is organized into two separate, and very unequal drainage areas. The right drainage area clears the right arm and chest. The left drainage area clears all of the other areas of the body including both legs, the lower trunk upper left of the chest, and the right arm.
external image 137
Lymphatic Drainage Areas
© Lymph Notes
  • Damage disturbs the flow. When lymphatic tissues or lymph nodes have been damaged, destroyed or removed, lymph cannot drain normally from the affected area. When this happens excess lymph accumulates and results in the swelling that is characteristic of lymphedema.
  • Drainage areas. The treatment of lymphedema is based on the natural structures and the flow of lymph. The affected drainage area determines the pattern of the manual lymph drainage (MLD) and for self-massage. Although lymph does not normally cross from one area to another, MLD stimulates the flow from one area to another. It also encourages the formation of new lymph drainage pathways.
  • MLD treatment and self-massage begin by stimulating the area near the terminus and the larger lymphatic vessels. This stimulates the flow of lymph that is already in the system and frees space for the flow of the lymph that is going to enter the capillaries during the treatment.
  • MLD treatment continues as a gentle massage technique to stimulate the movement of the excess lymph in affected tissues. The rhythmic, light strokes of MLD provide just the right pressure to encourage this excess lymph to flow into the lymph capillaries.
  • The compression garments, aids, and/or bandages that are worn between treatments help control swelling by providing pressure that is needed to encourage the flow of lymph into the capillaries.
  • Exercise is important in the treatment of lymphedema because the movements of the muscles stimulate the flow of the lymph into the capillaries. Wearing a compression garment during exercise also provides resistance to further stimulate this flow.
  • Self-massage or simplified lympatic drainage, as prescribed by your therapist, is another way in which lymph is encouraged to flow into the capillaries. Each self-massage session begins at the terminus with strokes to stimulate the flow of lymph that is already in the system. This is followed by specialized strokes that encourage the flow of lymph into the capillaries and then upward to the terminus got these great notes from check it out!
video for the urinary system

external image DIGESTIVE_SYSTEM_02.GIF
by J.Miller
by J.Miller

U.S Department of Health and Human Services
The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra. (by J. Miller)

How does the urinary system work?

Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines-all of which also excrete wastes-to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated.
The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fists. They are near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long. Muscles in the ureter walls constantly tighten and relax to force urine downward away from the kidneys. If urine is allowed to stand still, or back up, a kidney infection can develop. Small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters about every 10 to 15 seconds.
The bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon. It sits in your pelvis and is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder stores urine until you are ready to go to the bathroom to empty it. It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If the urinary system is healthy, the bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours.
Circular muscles called sphincters help keep urine from leaking. The sphincter muscles close tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder into the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body.
Nerves in the bladder tell you when it is time to urinate, or empty your bladder. As the bladder first fills with urine, you may notice a feeling that you need to urinate. The sensation to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder continues to fill and reaches its limit. At that point, nerves from the bladder send a message to the brain that the bladder is full, and your urge to empty your bladder intensifies.
When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax. As these muscles relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.

What causes problems in the urinary system?

Problems in the urinary system can be caused by aging, illness, or injury. As you get older, changes in the kidneys' structure cause them to lose some of their ability to remove wastes from the blood. Also, the muscles in your ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. You may have more urinary infections because the bladder muscles do not tighten enough to empty your bladder completely. A decrease in strength of muscles of the sphincters and the pelvis can also cause incontinence, the unwanted leakage of urine. Illness or injury can also prevent the kidneys from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine.
How are problems in the urinary system detected?
Urinalysis is a test that studies the content of urine for abnormal substances such as protein or signs of infection. This test involves urinating into a special container and leaving the sample to be studied.
Urodynamic tests evaluate the storage of urine in the bladder and the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. Your doctor may want to do a urodynamic test if you are having symptoms that suggest problems with the muscles or nerves of your lower urinary system and pelvis-ureters, bladder, urethra, and sphincter muscles.
Urodynamic tesst measure the contraction of the bladder muscle as it fills and empties. The test is done by inserting a small tube called a catheter through your urethra into your bladder to fill it either with water or a gas. Another small tube is inserted into your rectum or vagina to measure the pressure put on your bladder when you strain or cough. Other bladder tests use x-ray dye instead of water so that x-ray pictures can be taken when the bladder fills and empties to detect any abnormalities in the shape and function of the bladder. These tests take about an hour.
What are some disorders of the urinary system?
Disorders of the urinary system range in severity from easy to treat to life threatening.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition in men that affects the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is located at the bottom of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. BPH is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can interfere with urinary function in older men. It causes blockage by squeezing the urethra, which can make it difficult to urinate. Men with BPH frequently have other bladder symptoms including an increase in frequency of bladder emptying both during the day and at night. Most men over age 60 have some BPH, but not all have problems with blockage. There are many different treatment options for BPH.
Painful bladder syndrome/Interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a chronic bladder disorder also known as frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. In this disorder, the bladder wall can become inflamed and irritated. The inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, pinpoint bleeding, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. The cause of IC is unknown at this time.
Kidney stones is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little. The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used. Kidney stones affect men more often than women.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency and urgency, burning or painful urination, a condition called dysuria, and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms. In some cases, prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics. But the more common forms of prostatitis are not associated with any known infecting organism. Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating the nonbacterial forms of prostatitis.
Proteinuria is the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine. Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave in protein. Protein in the urine does not cause a problem by itself. But it may be a sign that your kidneys are not working properly.
Renal (kidney) failure results when the kidneys are not able to regulate water and chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood. Acute renal failure (ARF) is the sudden onset of kidney failure. This condition can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, or some drugs or poisons. ARF may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). You may go several years without knowing you have CKD.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria in the urinary tract. Women get UTIs more often than men. UTIs are treated with antibiotics. Drinking lots of fluids also helps by flushing out the bacteria.
The name of the UTI depends on its location in the urinary tract. An infection in the bladder is called cystitis. If the infection is in one or both of the kidneys, the infection is called pyelonephritis. This type of UTI can cause serious damage to the kidneys if it is not adequately treated.
Urinary incontinence, loss of bladder control, is the involuntary passage of urine. There are many causes and types of incontinence, and many treatment options. Treatments range from simple exercises to surgery. Women are affected by urinary incontinence more often than men.
Urinary retention, or bladder-emptying problems, is a common urological problem with many possible causes. Normally, urination can be initiated voluntarily and the bladder empties completely. Urinary retention is the abnormal holding of urine in the bladder. Acute urinary retention is the sudden inability to urinate, causing pain and discomfort. Causes can include an obstruction in the urinary system, stress, or neurologic problems. Chronic urinary retention refers to the persistent presence of urine left in the bladder after incomplete emptying. Common causes of chronic urinary retention are bladder muscle failure, nerve damage, or obstructions in the urinary tract. Treatment for urinary retention depends on the cause.
Who can help me with a urinary problem?
Your primary doctor can help you with some [[#|urinary problems]]. Your pediatrician may be able to treat some of your child's urinary problems. But some problems may require the attention of a urologist, a doctor who specializes in treating problems of the urinary system and the male reproductive system. A gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system and may be able to help with some urinary problems. A urogynecologist is a gynecologist who specializes in the female urinary system. A nephrologist specializes in treating diseases of the kidney.

Points to Remember

  • Your urinary system filters waste and extra fluid from your blood.
  • Problems in the urinary system include kidney failure, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and bladder control problems.
  • Health professionals who treat urinary problems include general practitioners (your primary doctor), pediatricians, urologists, gynecologists, urogynecologists, and nephrologists (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) by J. Miller
Good diagram for final on urinary system. DT
Here is the word bank that Lee made for these diagrams :)

Chapter Summary from our book
The Urinary System by Joanne Miller
The kidneys are located under the back muscles, behind the parietal peritoneum, just above the waistline. The right kidney is usually a little lower than the left. Internally, the cortex is the outer layer of the kidney substance. The medulla is the inner portion of kidney. Pyramids are the triangular divisions of the medulla. The papilla is the narrow, innermost end of the pyramid. The pelvis is the expansion of the upper end of the ureter that lies inside the kidney. Calyces are the divisions of renal pelvis.
On a microscopic level, nephrons are units of the kidneys. They consist of the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule. The renal corpuscle is broken down into the Bowman capsule, which is the cup-shaped top, and the glomerulus, which is the network of blood capillaries surrounded by the Bowman capsule. The renal tubule has a proximal convoluted tubule, which is the first segment. The Henle loop is an extension of the proximal tubule. It consists of descending limb, loop, and ascending limb. The third part of the renal tubule is the distal convoluted tubule, which is an extension of the ascending limb of the Henle loop. The fourth and final part of the renal tubule is the collecting tubule, which is a straight extension of distal tubule.
The kidney has many functions. It excretes toxins and nitrogenous wastes and regulates levels of many chemicals in blood. The kidney maintains water balance, helps regulate blood pressure via secretion of renin, and produces a hormone in the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells stimulating RBC production and maturation.
Urine formation occurs by a series of three processes that take place in successive parts of the nephron. Filtration goes on continually in renal corpuscles. The glomerular blood pressure causes water and dissolved substances to filter out of glomeruli into the Bowman capsule. The normal glomerular filtration rate is 125 milliliters per minute. Reabsorption refers to the movement of substances out of renal tubules into the blood in peritubular capillaries. Nutrients and ions are reabsorbed, and water is reabsorbed by osmosis from proximal tubules. Secretion is then the movement of substances into the urine in the distal and collecting tubules from the blood in the peritubular capillaries. Hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs are secreted by active transport. Ammonia is secreted by diffusion. The main control of urine volume is by the posterior pituitary hormone’s ADH, which decreases it.
The ureters are narrow, long tubes with an expanded upper end, called the renal pelvis, which is located inside the kidney and lined with a mucous membrane. The function of the ureters is to drain urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.
The bladder is an elastic muscular organ that is capable of great expansion. It is lined with a mucous membrane arranged in rugae, just as is stomach mucosa. The bladder is a storage area for urine before voiding.
The urethra is a narrow tube from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body. It is lined with a mucous membrane. The opening of the urethra to the exterior is called the urinary meatus. The urethra is used in the passage of urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body. The urethra is also the area used in the passage of male reproductive fluid, called semen, from the body.
Micturition is the passage of urine from body. This is also called urination or voiding. There are two regulatory sphincters: the internal urethral sphincter, which is involuntary, and the external urethral sphincter, which is voluntary. The bladder wall permits storage of urine with little increase in pressure. There is an emptying reflex, which is initiated by a stretch reflex in the bladder wall. The bladder wall contracts, and the internal sphincter relaxes. The external sphincter then relaxes, and urination occurs. Urinary retention occurs when urine is produced but not voided. Urinary suppression occurs when no urine is produced, but the bladder is normal. Urinary incontinence occurs when urine is voided involuntarily. This is a common bladder control problem in elderly people. It also may be caused by spinal injury or stroke. The retention of urine may cause cystitis. Cystitis is a bladder infection.
An [[#|overactive bladder]] refers to the need for frequent urination and is called interstitial cystitis. The amounts voided are small, and extreme urgency and pain are common with an overactive bladder.
Worksheet for Reproductive System Final


In reviewing the following vocabulary words, decide which words relate to the female, which to the male, and which to both sexes. After each word write (F) for female, (M) for male, or (B) for both:

Menses _
Seminiferous tubule _
Fimbriae _
Ovulation _
Ejaculation _
Genitals _
Perineum _
Endometrium _
Gonads _
Progesterone _
Epididymis _
Graafian follicle _
Scrotum _
Episiotomy _
Meiosis _
Areola _
Testes _
Menopause _
Circumcision _
Testosterone _
Spermatogenesis _
Clitoris _
Vulva _
Spermatozoa _
Semen _
Estrogen _

2. List the analogous features of the female and the male reproductive systems:
Essential organs

Sex cells


Hormone-producing cells

Duct system

External genitals

3. During a 28-day menstrual cycle, at what point in the month might the postmenstrual phase take place? (A) _ days. Ovulation? (B) _ days. Premenstrual phase? (C) _ days. Menstrual period? (D) _ days

by tford711
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The Reproductive Systems By Joanne Miller
Chapter Summary
There is a common general structure and function that can be identified between the reproductive systems in both of the sexes. The systems adapted for the development of sperm or ova are followed by successful fertilization, development, and birth of offspring. Sex hormones in both genders are important in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and normal reproductive system activity.
The male reproductive system has organs that are classified as either essential or accessory. The essential organs of reproduction are the gonads, called the testes, which produce sex cells, which are called the sperm or the spermatozoa. There are three accessory organs of reproduction in the male. The first is the ducts, which are passageways that carry sperm from the testes to the exterior of the body. The second accessory organ in the male reproduction system is the sex glands, which produce a protective and a nutrient solution for the sperm. The external genitals are the third accessory organ in the male.
The testes are the gonads of men. They are in the scrotum, which allows them to lower their temperature. The testes are covered by tunica albuginea, which divides the testis into lobules containing the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial cells of the testes produce testosterone. Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm production. Sperm precursor cells are called spermatogonia. Meiosis produces the primary spermatocyte, which forms four spermatids with 23 chromosomes each. The spermatozoa are highly specialized cells. The heads contain genetic material, and the acrosome contains enzymes to assist the sperm in penetration of the ovum. Mitochondria in the midpiece provide energy for movement.
In the testes, the testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells of the testes. Testosterone “masculinizes” and promotes development of the male accessory organs. Testosterone also stimulates protein anabolism and development of muscle strength.
The reproductive ducts are the ducts through which sperm pass after exiting the testes until they exit from the body. The epididymis is a single, coiled tube about 6 meters in length. It lies along the top and behind the testes in the scrotum. Sperm mature and develop the capacity for motility as they pass through the epididymis. The ductus (vas) deferens receives the sperm from the epididymis and transports them from the scrotal sac through the abdominal cavity. This passes through the inguinal canal and joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
Accessory, or supportive, sex glands add to the mix to create semen, which is a mixture of sperm and secretions of accessory sex glands. Semen averages 3 to 5 milliliters per ejaculation, with each milliliter containing about 100 million sperm. The seminal vesicles are pouchlike glands that produce about 60% of seminal fluid volume. This secretion is yellowish, thick, and rich in fructose to provide energy needed by the sperm for motility. The prostate gland is shaped like a doughnut and located below the bladder. The urethra passes through the prostate gland, and its secretion represents 30% of the seminal fluid volume and is thin and milk-colored. The prostate activates sperm and is needed for ongoing sperm motility. The bulbourethral glands, also called Cowper’s glands, resemble peas in size and shape. These glands secrete a mucus-like fluid that constitutes less than 5% of seminal fluid volume.
The penis and scrotum are called genitalia. The penis has three columns of erectile tissue. These are the two dorsal columns called the corpora cavernosa and the one ventral column surrounding urethra called the corpus spongiosum. The glans penis is covered by a foreskin, called the prepuce. Surgical removal of this foreskin is called circumcision.
Essential organs of the female reproductive system are the gonads, or ovaries, which produce the sex cells, or the ova. The accessory organs of reproduction are the ducts or modified ducts, including the oviducts, uterus, and vagina. The sex glands include the breasts and external genitals.
The ovaries are paired glands weighing about 3 grams each. These resemble large almonds and are attached to ligaments in the pelvic cavity on each side of the uterus. The microscopic structure includes the ovarian follicles, each of which contains an oocyte. An oocyte is an immature sex cell. Women are born with about 1 million oocytes. There are about 400,000 primary follicles at puberty. These are covered with granulosa cells. About 350 to 500 mature follicles ovulate during the reproductive lifetime of most women. These are sometimes called graafian follicles. The secondary follicles have a hollow chamber called the antrum. The corpus luteum forms after ovulation.
Oogenesis is meiotic cell division, which produces daughter cells with equal chromosome numbers, 23 to be exact, but unequal cytoplasm. The ovum is large, and the polar bodies are small and degenerate. The granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte in the mature and growing follicles produce estrogen. The corpus luteum produces progesterone. Estrogen causes development and maintenance of the secondary sex characteristics. Progesterone stimulates the secretory activity of the uterine epithelium and assists estrogen in initiating menses. The reproductive ducts are the uterine, or fallopian, tubes. These are also called the oviducts. They extend about 10 centimeters from the uterus into the abdominal cavity. The expanded distal end is surrounded by fimbriae and the mucosal lining of the tube is directly continuous with the lining of the abdominal cavity. The uterus is composed of the body, fundus, and cervix and lies in the pelvic cavity just behind the urinary bladder. The myometrium is the muscle layer of the uterus. The endometrium is the layer lost in menstruation. Menopause is the end of repetitive menstrual cycles and occurs at about 45 to 50 years of age. The vagina is a distensible tube about 10 centimeters long. It is located between the urinary bladder and the rectum in the pelvis. It receives the penis during sexual intercourse and is the birth canal for a normal delivery of a baby at the end of a term of pregnancy.
Accessory, or supportive, sex glands of the female reproductive organs are the Bartholin’s, or greater vestibular, glands. These secrete a mucus-like lubricating fluid through ducts that open between the labia minora. The breasts are another accessory sex organ. These are located over the pectoral muscles of the thorax. Size of the breasts is determined by the fat quantity more than the amount of glandular, or milk-secreting, tissue. Lactiferous ducts drain at the nipple, which is surrounded by the pigmented areola. Lymphatic drainage is important in the spread of cancer cells to other body areas.
The external genitals are another accessory sex organ. This includes the vulva, which includes the mons pubis, clitoris, orifice of the urethra, Bartholin’s gland, orifice of the vagina, labia minora and majora, and the hymen. The perineum is the area between the vaginal opening and the anus. A surgical cut of the perineum during childbirth is called an episiotomy.
The menstrual cycle involves many changes in the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and breasts. It usually cycles about every 28 days, and varies from month to month among individuals and in the same individual. There are three phases in the menstrual cycle. Menses refers to the first 4 or 5 days of the cycle, and varies somewhat. It is characterized by the sloughing of bits of the endometrium, or the uterine lining, with bleeding. The proliferative phase refers to the days between the end of menses and the secretory phase, which varies in length. The shorter the cycle is, the shorter the proliferative phase will be. The longer the cycle is, the longer the proliferative phase will be. For example, in a 28-day cycle, the proliferative phase ends on day 13, but in 26-day cycle, it ends on the 11th day, and in 32-day cycle, it ends on day 17. This part of the cycle is characterized by the repair of the endometrium. The secretory phase refers to the days between ovulation and the beginning of the next menses. The secretory phase is about 14 days before the next menses and is characterized by the further thickening of the endometrium and secretion by its glands in preparation for the implantation of a fertilized ovum. The combined actions of the anterior pituitary hormones, FSH and LH, cause ovulation. A sudden sharp decrease in estrogens and progesterone bring on menstruation if pregnancy does not occur.
In summary, in men and women the organs of the reproductive system are adapted for the specific sequence of functions that permit development of sperm or ova after the successful fertilization and then the normal development and birth of offspring. The male organs produce, store, and ultimately introduce mature sperm into the female reproductive tract. The female system produces ova, receives the sperm, and permits fertilization, which is followed by fetal development and birth, with lactation afterward. The production of sex hormones is required for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for normal reproductive functions in both sexes.

external image placeholder?w=373&h=255Their procedure:
  • Remove the spindle with all its attached chromosomes from the mother's oocyte at metaphase II of meiosis. They managed to do this without any of her mitochondria being withdrawn as well.
  • Enucleate the oocyte of the mitochondria donor and then insert the mother's chromosomes — still attached to the spindle — into it. Then inject a sperm from the father.
  • Allow the fertilized egg to develop into a blastocyst.
  • Implant this in the uterus of a surrogate mother.
  • The result: 4 healthy babies each with the nuclear genes of their mother and father but none of the mitochondria of their mother.
If this technique could be applied to humans, it would allow women carrying defective mitochondria to bear babies free of the ailment.
Male Reproductive Systemby Joanne Miller
Male Reproductive Systemby Joanne Miller

Female Reproductive System by Joanne Miller
Female Reproductive System by Joanne Miller

Cool video of duodenal ulcer with spurter, Controlled using clipping and Injection. Also shows Problems of clip deployment.

Birth and Lactation

external image placeholder?w=295&h=345Exactly what brings about the onset of labor is still not completely understood. Probably a variety of integrated hormonal controls are at work.
Link to a discussion of hormones involved in birth and lactation.
The first result of labor is the opening of the cervix. With continued powerful contractions, the amnion ruptures and the amniotic fluid (the "waters") flows out through the vagina. The baby follows, and its umbilical cord can be cut.
The infant's lungs expand, and it begins breathing. This requires a major switchover in the circulatory system. Blood flow through the umbilical cord, ductus arteriosus, and foramen ovale ceases, and the [[../C/Circulation.html#Heart_Pulmonary|adult pattern]] of blood flow through the heart, aorta, and pulmonary arteries begins. In some infants, the switchover is incomplete, and blood flow through the pulmonary arteries is inadequate.



external image 340px-Digestive_system_diagram_edit.svg.png
  • Digestive System (National Geographic)

[[#|The digestive system]] is the series of tubelike organs that convert our meals into body fuel. In all there's about 30 feet (9 meters) of these convoluted pipeworks, starting with the mouth and ending with the anus. Along the way, food is broken down, sorted, and reprocessed before being circulated around the body to nourish and replace cells and supply energy to our muscles.

Food on the plate needs to become a mashed-up, gooey liquid for the digestive system to be able to split it up into its constituent parts: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Our teeth start the process by chewing and grinding up each mouthful, while the tongue works it into a ball-shaped bolus for swallowing.

Moistening saliva fed into the mouth from nearby glands starts the process of chemical digestion using specialized proteins called enzymes. Secreted at various points along the digestive tract, enzymes break down large molecules of food into smaller molecules that the body is able to absorb.
Once we swallow, digestion becomes involuntary. Food passes down the throat to the esophagus, the first of a succession of hollow organs that transport their contents through muscular contractions known as peristalsis.

The esophagus empties into the stomach, a large, muscular chamber that mixes food up with digestive juices including the enzymes pepsin, which targets proteins, and lipase, which works on fats. Hydrochloric acid likewise helps to dissolve the stomach contents while killing potentially harmful bacteria. The resulting semifluid paste—chyme—is sealed in the stomach by two ringlike sphincter muscles for several hours and then released in short bursts into the duodenum.
The first of three sections of the small intestine, the duodenum produces large quantities of mucus to protect the intestinal lining from acid in the chyme. Measuring about 20 feet (6 meters) in length, the small intestine is where the major digestion and absorption of nutrients take place. These nutrients are taken into the bloodstream, via millions of tiny, fingerlike projections called villi, and transported to the liver.

What's left in the digestive tract passes into the large intestine, where it's eaten by billions of harmless bacteria and mixed with dead cells to form solid feces. Water is reabsorbed into the body while the feces are moved into the rectum to await expulsion.

  • Key Players

Other organs that play a key role in digestion include the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The pancreas is a gland organ located behind the stomach that manufactures a cocktail of enzymes that are pumped into the duodenum. A duct also connects the duodenum to the gallbladder. This pear-shaped sac squeezes out green-brown bile, a waste product collected from the liver that contains acids for dissolving fatty matter.

The liver itself is the body's main chemical factory, performing hundreds of different functions. It processes nutrients absorbed into the blood by the small intestine, creating energy-giving glycogen from sugary carbohydrates and converting dietary proteins into new proteins needed for our blood. These are then stored or released as needed, as are essential vitamins and minerals. The liver also breaks down unwanted chemicals, such as any alcohol consumed, which is detoxified and passed from the body as waste.

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The respiratory system <- I don't know how to post a video. This is a video someone did as a class assignment, about how the respiratory system works. They did a really good job so I thought I'd share. - Meghan

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Lower Respiratory Tract by tford711
Lower Respiratory Tract by tford711

Link to Respiratory System and Function Video by tford711

Chapter Summary from Evolve Website by tford711
Chapter 14: The Respiratory System
The basic plan of the respiratory system would be similar to an inverted tree if it were hollow. The leaves of the tree would be comparable to alveoli, with the microscopic sacs enclosed by networks of capillaries. The passive transport process of diffusion is responsible for the exchange of gases that occur during respiration. The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, pharynx, and larynx. The lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs.
The respiratory mucosa is a specialized membrane that lines the air-distribution tubes in the respiratory tree. More than 125 milliliters of mucus is produced each day and forms a mucous blanket over much of the respiratory mucosa. Mucus serves as an air purification mechanism by trapping inspired irritants such as dust and pollen. Cilia on mucosal cells beat in only one direction, moving mucus upward to the pharynx for removal.
The nasal septum separates the interior of nose into two cavities, while the mucous membrane lines the nose. The frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal sinuses drain into the nose. The nose warms and moistens inhaled air and the nose contains the sense organs of smell.
The pharynx, or throat, is about 12.5 centimeters, or 5 inches, long. It is divided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The two nasal cavities, mouth, esophagus, larynx, and auditory tubes all have openings into the pharynx. The pharyngeal tonsils and openings of the auditory tubes open into the nasopharynx. The tonsils are found in oropharynx. A mucous membrane also lines the pharynx. The pharynx is a passageway for food and liquids and also is important to air distribution as a passageway for the air.
The larynx has several pieces of cartilage that form its framework. The thyroid cartilage, commonly referred to as the Adam’s apple, is the largest. The epiglottis partially covers the opening into the larynx. The larynx also has a mucous lining, and the vocal cords stretch across the interior of the larynx. The larynx is important in air distribution and acts as a passageway for air to move to and from the lungs. It is also responsible for voice production.
The trachea is a tube about 11 centimeters, or 4.5 inches, long that extends from the larynx into the thoracic cavity. It has a mucous lining and is made up of C-shaped rings of cartilage, which hold the trachea open. The trachea functions as a passageway for air to move to and from the lungs. The blockage of the trachea occludes the airway and, if complete, causes death in minutes. Tracheal obstruction causes more than 4,000 deaths annually in the United States.
The trachea branches into right and left bronchi. Each bronchus branches into smaller and smaller tubes eventually leading to bronchioles. Bronchioles end in clusters of microscopic alveolar sacs, the walls of which are made up of alveoli. The bronchi and bronchioles are responsible for air distribution and act as passageways for air to move to and from alveoli. The alveoli are responsible for the exchange of gases between air and blood.
The lungs and pleura are large enough to fill the chest cavity, except for middle space occupied by the heart and large blood vessels. The apex is the narrow upper part of each lung, which is under the collarbone. The base is the broad lower part of each lung, which rests on the diaphragm. The pleura is a moist, smooth, slippery membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the outer surface of the lungs. This reduces friction between the lungs and the chest wall during breathing. The function of the lungs is to facilitate breathing, which is also called pulmonary ventilation.
Pulmonary ventilation includes two phases called inspiration, which is the movement of air into the lungs, and expiration, which is the movement of air out of the lungs. Changes in the size and shape of the thorax cause changes in the air pressure within that cavity and in the lungs. Air pressure differences cause air to move into and out of the lungs. Inspiration is the active process in which air moves into the lungs. The inspiratory muscles include the diaphragm and external intercostals. The diaphragm flattens during inspiration, which increases the top-to-bottom length of the thorax. Contraction of the external intercostals elevates the ribs, which increases the size of the thorax from the front to the back and from side to side. The increase in the size of the chest cavity reduces pressure within it. Air then enters the lungs.
Quiet expiration is ordinarily a passive process. During expiration, the thorax returns to its resting size and shape. The elastic recoil of the lung tissues aids in expiration. The expiratory muscles that are used in forceful expiration are internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. The internal intercostals cause the contraction that depresses the rib cage and decreases the size of the thorax from the front to back.
Contraction of abdominal muscles elevates the diaphragm, thus decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity from top to bottom. The reduction in the size of the thoracic cavity increases its pressure and air leaves the lungs.
The lungs are the site of gas exchange in the body. Carbaminohemoglobin breaks down into carbon dioxide and hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide moves out of lung capillary blood and into alveolar air and out of the body in expired air. Oxygen moves from the alveoli into the lung capillaries. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen, producing oxyhemoglobin.
There is an exchange of gases in the tissues. Oxyhemoglobin breaks down into oxygen and hemoglobin. Oxygen moves out of tissue capillary blood into tissue cells. Carbon dioxide moves from the tissue cells into tissue capillary blood. Hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide, forming carbaminohemoglobin.
Blood transports gasses to each of these sites of gas exchange. The blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. The volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilationcan be measured with a spirometer. Tidal volume is the amount normally breathed in or out with each breath. Vital capacity is the greatest amount of air that one can breathe out in one expiration. Expiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume. Inspiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inspiration. Residual volume is the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration. A person usually has a breathing rate of about 12 to 18 breaths a minute. This is much faster during exercise.
The regulation of respiration permits the body to adjust to varying demands for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal. The most important central regulatory centers in the medulla are called the respiratory control centers, or inspiratory and expiratory centers. Under resting conditions, nervous activity in the respiratory control centers produces a normal rate and depth of respirations, which is roughly 12 to 18 per minute. The respiratory control centers in the medulla are influenced by “inputs” from receptors located in other body areas. The cerebral cortex has voluntary, but limited, control of respiratory activity. Chemoreceptors respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, and blood acid levels. These are located in the carotid and aortic bodies. The pulmonary stretch receptors respond to the stretch in the lungs, thus protecting respiratory organs from overinflation.
Eupnea is normal breathing. Hyperventilation is rapid and deep respirations. Conversely, hypoventilation is slow and shallow respirations. Dyspnea is labored or difficult respirations, and apnea is stopped respiration. Respiratory arrest is the failure to resume breathing after a period of apnea.

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by tford711

The Lymphatic System;

  • Thyroid is not a part of the lymphatic system
  • Common characteristics shared by blood 7 lymph vessels are; some contain one way valves, they contain continually circulating fluid & they have a layer of simple squamous epithelium
  • Roles of the complementary are: increasing the permeability of blood vessels, attracting immune cells to the site of infections 7 making foreign cells of destruction
  • Lymph is forms by the plasma leaving the capillary as a result of pressure on the blood caused by the pumping action of the heart
  • Thoracic duct is the largest lymph vessel in the body
  • Lymph & lymph vessels is part of the thoracic duct
  • Cisterna chili is part of the thoracic duct
  • Lymph 7 lymph vessels in the walls of the small intestine is called lacteals
  • Lymph nodes contain phagocytic cells
  • Lymph can carry cancer cells that can be trapped in lymph nodes
  • Lymph best possible route for the spread of cancer, carry bacteria to lymph nodes
  • Nonspecific immunity increases vessels permeability with inflammatory response leading to swelling
  • Thymus helps T lymphocytes mature
  • Palatine tonsils are located on either side of throat
  • Pharyngeal tonsils/adenoids are near the posterior opening of the nasal cavity
  • Spleen helps filter out bacteria
  • Heat is one sign of inflammation caused by increased blood flow to inflamed area
  • Inflammation response is part of the nonspecific immunity
  • Flu shot is example of artificial active immunity
  • Immunity passed from mother to daughter ( breast milk) is natural active immunity
  • If you had the measles you can’t get it again; example of natural active immunity
  • Giving a person gamma globulin to keep disease coming is an example of artificial passive immunity

Chapter 13. The Lymphatic System
The immune system is the “safety net” is characterized by structural components, the lymphatic organs, and by a functional group of defensive cells and molecules that protect us from infection and disease.
Lymph and Lymphatic Vessels
The exchange of blood and tissue fluid occurs in the capillary beds. Many additional substances that cannot enter or return through the capillary walls, including excess fluid and protein molecules, are returned to the blood as lymph. Lymph is a fluid formed in the tissue spaces that is transported by way of lymphatic vessels to eventually reenter the bloodstream carried by the cardiovascular. The lymphatic system and the [[#|cardiovascular system]] are partners, but both are vital components of the circulatory system. There are also lymph nodes and specialized lymphatic organs such as the thymus and spleen. Such lymphatic organs help to filter the body’s fluids, removing harmful particles before they can cause significant damage to other parts of the body. Lymph forms when blood plasma filters out of the capillaries into the microscopic spaces between tissue cells because of the pressure generated by the pumping action of the heart. There the liquid is called interstitial fluid, or tissue fluid. A portion of the interstitial fluid goes back into blood the same way it came out, through the capillaries. The rest enters a network of tiny blind ended tubes distributed in the tissue spaces. The tiny vessels, lymphatic capillaries, permit excessive tissue fluid and some other substances such as dissolved protein molecules to leave the spaces. The similarities of blood and lymphatic capillaries are microscopic and formed from sheets that consist of cell layers of simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. The differences are that the flattened endothelial cells that form blood capillaries fit tightly together so that large molecules cannot enter or exit from the vessel. The “fit” between lymphatic capillaries is not tight. Lymphatic capillaries are more porous and allow larger molecules to enter the vessel and eventually return to the general circulation. Movement of lymph- It does not flow over and over again through vessels that form a circular rate. The lymphatic vessels often have a “beady” appearance, resulting from the presence of valves that assist in maintaining a one way flow. Sometimes lymph backs up in the vessels thus causing the beady appearance. After the lymphatic capillaries next moves into successively larger and larger vessels sometimes called lymphatic venules and veins. These lymphatic vessels eventually empty into one of two terminal vessels called the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct, which empty their lymph into blood in large veins in the neck region. Lymph from about 3/4ths of the body eventually drains into the thoracic duct, which is the largest lymphatic duct. The thoracic duct in the abdomen has an enlarged pouch like structure called the cisterna chili, which serves as a temporary holding area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the veins. Lacteals are the lymphatic capillaries in the wall of the small intestine, the transport fats obtained from food to the blood stream.
Lymph Nodes
Lymph moves from its origin in the tissue spaces to wear the thoracic or right lymphatic ducts and then into the venous blood, filtered by moving through lymph nodes, which are located in clusters along the pathway of lymphatic vessels. Nodes may be as small as a pin head, but can be as large as a lima bean. With the exception of comparatively few single nodes, most lymph nodes occur in groups or clusters in certain areas. The structure of the lymph nodes makes it possible for them to perform their two important functions: dense and white blood cell formation. Lymph nodes are lymphoid organs because they contain lymphoid tissue, which is a mass of developing lymphocytes and related cells. Lymphoid organs are important structural components of the immune system because they provide immune defense and development of immune cells.
Defense Function: Biological Filtration
Lymph nodes perform biological filtration, a process in which cells alter the contents of the filtered fluid. Biological filtration of bacteria and other abnormal cells by phagocytosis prevents local infections from spreading. Lymph enters the node through four afferent lymphatic vessels. These vessels deliver lymph to the node. Once lymph enters the node, it “percolates” slowly through spaces called sinuses that surround nodules found in the outer (cortex) and inner (medullary) areas of the node. In passing through the node, lymph is filtered so that bacteria, cancer cells, and damaged tissue cells are removed and prevented from entering the blood and circulating over the body. Lymph then exits from the node through a single efferent lymphatic vessel. Lyphangiogram – is an x-ray image when special dye was injected into the soft tissues that drain of the part of the lymphatic network that appears in the image. Nodes may contain cancer cells filtered out of the lymph drained from areas.
Thymus is a small lymphoid tissue organ located in the mediastinum, extending upward in the midline of the neck. It is composed of lymphocytes in a meshwork frame, also called the thymus gland, largest at puberty and even then only weighs only 30-40 grams. The thymus plays an important part of the body’s immunity mechanism. The thymus is the source of the lymphocytes before birth, these lymphocytes play a big role in maturation, of a type of lymphocyte that then leaves the thymus and circulates to the spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid tissues. The T lymphocytes, T cells, are critical to the functioning of the immune system. A group of hormones secreted by the thymus called thymosins influences the development of T cells. The thymus is eventually replaced by fat and connective tissue, a process called involution.
The tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissue; they are located in a protective ring under the mucous membranes in the mouth and the back of the throat. They help protect against bacteria that may invade tissues in the area around the openings between the nasal and oral cavities. The palatine tonsils are located on each side of the throat. The pharyngeal tonsils, all so known as the adenoids when they become swollen, are near the posterior opening of the nasal cavity. A third type of tonsil, the lingual tonsils, is near the base of the tongue. The tonsils are the first line of defense from the exterior and as such are the subject to chronic infection. In rare cases, they may be removed if antibiotic therapy is not successful at treating the chronic infection or if swelling impairs breathing.

The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body. The spleen is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the stomach. The spleen is very rich blood supply and may contain more than 500 mL of blood. If the spleen is damaged and bleeding, surgical removal, called splenectomy may be required to stop the bleeding. After entering the spleen, blood flows through dense, pulp like accumulations of lymphocytes. As blood flows through the pulp, the spleen removes by filtration and phagocytosis many bacteria and other foreign substances, destroys worn out red blood cells and salvages the iron found in hemoglobin for future use, and serves as a reservoir for blood that can be returned to the cardiovascular system when needed.
The Immune System: Function of the Immune System:
The body’s overall defense system is called the immune system. The immune system makes us immune- that is, able to resist these threats to our health and survival. In the lymphatic system, you have organs that provide defense: lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and spleen. The immune system is not simply a small group of organs working together. Instead, it is an interactive network of many organs and billions of freely moving cells and trillions of free-floating molecules in many different areas of the body.
Nonspefic Immunity:
Nonspecific immunity is maintained by mechanisms that attack any irritant or abnormal substance that threatens the internal environment. Nonspecific immunity confers general protection rather than protection from certain kinds of threatening cells or chemicals. We are born with nonspecific defenses that do not require prior exposure to a harmful substance or threatening cell, nonspecific immunity is often called innate immunity. Nonspecific immune responses are much more rapid than specific immune responses.
Specific Immunity includes protective mechanisms that confer very specific protection against certain types of threatening microorganisms or other toxic materials, involves memory and the ability to recognize and respond to certain harmful substances or bacteria. Because it is able to adapt to newly encountered “enemies” specific immunity is often called adaptive immunity. In specific immunity, when the body is first attacked by particular bacteria or viruses, disease symptoms may occur as the body fights to destroy the threatening organism. However, if the body is exposed a second time to the same threatening organism, no serious symptoms occur because the organism is destroyed quickly- the person is said to be immune to that particular organism. Immunity can be very selective. Specfic immunity can be classified as either “natural” or “artificial” depending on how the body is exposed to the harmful agent. Natural exposure is not deliberate and occurs in the course of everyday living. We are naturally exposed to diease-causing agents on a regular basis. Artificial exposure is called immunization and is deliberate exposure of the body to potentially harmful agent. Natural and artificial immunity may be “active” or “passive” Active immunity occurs when an individual’s own immune system responds to a harmful agent, regardless of whether that agent was naturally or artificially encountered. Passive immunity results when immunity to a disease that has developed in another individual or animal is transferred to an individual who is not previously immune. Active immunity general lasts longer than passive immunity. Passive immunity, although temporary, provides immediate protection.
Hey Everybody! its corrine ima try to keep this organized so if you could keep adding stuff to chapter 12 section instead of the chapter 11 it will help in the future. im gonna try to keep all the chapters organized so this can be neat and tidy.....


The Lymphatic System and Immunity

A. Plasma cells H. Thymus

B. Monoclonal I. Antibodies

C. Interferon J. Lymph

D. Cell-mediated K. Memory cells

E. AIDS L. Complement

F. Phagocytosis M. Spleen

G. Stem cells N. Complement fixation

1. Specific antibodies produced or derived from a population of identical cells are called _ antibodies.
2. When certain T cells have been infected by viruses, they produce a small protein compound called _.
3. T cells are lymphocytes that create _ immunity.
4. The two types of protein molecules that are most critical to immune system functioning are called _ and _.
5. All lymphocytes that circulate in tissues arise from primitive cells in bone marrow called _.
6. T lymphocytes mature in the _.
7. _ is a disease or disorder of the immune system caused by a retrovirus that enters the bloodstream and integrates its genes into the DNA of T cell lymphocytes.
8. The process in which macrophages engulf bacteria and other foreign materials that enter the body is called _.
9. The largest lymphoid organ is the _.
10. Activated B cells that divide rapidly can develop into clones of two kinds of cells called _ and _.

Multiple Choice
11. What are lymphocytes that produce antibodies to destroy microorganisms called?
A. T cells
B. B cells
C. both A and B are true
D. none of the above
12. What is a rapidly growing population of identical cells that produce large quantities of specific antibodies called?
A. complementary
B. lymphotoxic
C. chemotactic
D. monoclonal
13. Which of the following is a form of passive natural immunity?
A. A child develops measles and acquires an immunity to subsequent infection.
B. Antibodies are injected into an infected individual.
C. An infant receives protection through its mother’s milk.
D. Vaccinations are given against smallpox.
14. Interferons are characterized by which of the following?
A. produced by B cells
B. protect other cells by interfering with the ability of a virus to reproduce
C. are a group of inactive enzyme proteins normally present in blood
D. all of the above
15. B cells do which of the following?
A. develop into plasma cells and memory cells
B. establish humoral immunity
C. develop in bone marrow from primitive cells called stem cells
D. all of the above
16. Which of the following functions kill invading cells by drilling a hole in their cytoplasmic membrane?
A. interferon
B. complement
C. antibody
D. memory cell

17. Which of the following cell types function in the immune system?
A. macrophages
B. lymphocytes
C. T cells
D. all of the above
18. T cells do which of the following?
A. develop in the thymus
B. form memory cells
C. form plasma cells
D. all of the above
19. Lymph does which of the following?
A. forms as blood plasma filters out of capillaries
B. empties into the heart
C. flows through lymphatic arteries
D. all of the above
Two-year-old Kimberly has been exposed to chickenpox by her older brother John. Because Kimberly has just recently been discharged from the hospital after a bout with pneumonia the doctor feels it prudent to give Kimberly a dose of interferon.
20. What effect will this have on Kimberly?
A. After this exposure, she will never have chickenpox.
B. She will not be able to transmit chickenpox to her younger sister, Katie, who is 3 months old.
C. This medication is little more than an aspirin but will relieve discomfort.D. It will decrease the severity of the chickenpox virus.

Column A Column B

_ 21. Adenoids A. Thoracic duct

_ 22. B cell B. Lymph node

_ 23. Clone C. Artificial immunity

_ 24. HIV virus D. Humoral immunity

_ 25. Complement E. Pharyngeal tonsils

_ 26. Filtration F. Foreign protein

_ 27. Cisterna chyli G. Inactive enzymes

_ 28. T cell H. AIDS

_ 29. Vaccination I. Identical cells

_ 30. Antigen J. Cell-mediated immunity

31. Fill in the blank spaces below, giving a brief explanation or example of each type of immunity.
Inherited Immunity:
Acquired Immunity:
Natural immunity:
Active (exposure):
Passive (exposure):
Artificial immunity:
Active (exposure):
Passive (exposure):

True or False
Wayne has been in an automobile accident. The emergency room doctor examines him and suspects possible injury to the spleen. You are aware of the following things about the spleen.
_ 32. The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body.
_ 33. The spleen is located in the lower-right quadrant.
_ 34. The spleen is capable of containing over a pint of blood.
_ 35. The spleen is protected by the lower rib cage.
_ 36. If severe damage and bleeding occur, a splenectomy may be required to stop the hemorrhage.

Label the numbered structures and write your answers in the blanks provided.

37. The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System:
Lymph- fluid in the tissue spaces that carries protein molecules and other substances back to the blood
Lymphatic vessels- permit only one-way movement of lymph
Lymphatic capillaries- are tiny blind-ended tubes distributed in tissue spaces
  • Microscopic in size
  • Sheets consisting of one cell layer of simple squamous epithelium
  • Poor “fit” between adjacent cells results in porous walls
  • Called lacteals in the intestinal wall ( fat transportation from food to the bloodstream)
Right Lymphatic duct
  • Drains lymph from the right upper extremity and right side of head, neck, and upper torso
Thoracic duct
  • Largest lymphatic vessel
  • Has an enlarged pouch along its course, is called cisterna chili
  • Drains lymph from about three fourths of the body
Lymph nodes
  • Filter lymph
  • Located in clusters along the pathway of lymphatic vessels
Lymphoid tissue
  • Mass of lymphocytes and related cells inside a lymphoid organ; provides immune function and development of immune cells
Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs have functions that include defense and WBC formation
The Flow of lymph:
  • To node via several afferent lymphatic vessels and drained from node by a single efferent lymphatic vessel
  • Lymphoid tissue organ located in mediastinum
  • Total weight of 35-40 grams- a little more than an ounce
  • Plays a vital and central role in immunity
  • Produces T lymphocytes, or T cells
  • Secretes hormones called thymosins, which influence T-cell development
  • Lymphoid tissue is replaced by fat ( during childhood) in the process called involution
Chapter 12

The cardiovascular system includes the heart and two networks of blood vessels: pulmonary circulation, which moves deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart; and systemic circulation, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues and returns oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart. Blood is that sticky, red fluid which circulates throughout the body in a complex network of veins and arteries, transporting nutrients and oxygen to the body's tissues and removing waste products for disposal. The heart's contractions work to move oxygen into the blood; it also gathers carbon dioxide from the blood so it can be expelled through the lungs. While the lungs play an important role in this process, each of the body's cells is involved. The cardiovascular system includes organs which take up space throughout the body, including the heart and all of the body's veins, arteries and capillaries. The cardiovascular system is basic to life and the beat of one's heart is an automatic function which is controlled by the brain.

Test Review
1. In the pumping action of the heart: atrial systole precedes ventricular systole
2. The first heart sound is the closing of the: tricuspid and mitral valves
3. The pulmonary vein returns oxygen-rich blood to the: left atrium
4. The right side of the heart: deals with oxygen-poor blood
5. The electrical connectors between heart muscle cells are called: intercalated disks
6. The “pacemaker” for the heart is usually the: sinoatrial node
9. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are the: arteries
10. The blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart are the: veins
11. The outermost layer of an artery or vein is called the: tunica adventitia
12. The hepatic portal system: is the second capillary system, receives venous blood ffrom the difestive system, helps maintain homeostasis
13. As the viscosity level of the blood: increases, the blood pressure increases
14. Pulse: can be felt only in arteries
15. Which of the following is true of the atria? receives blood from the veins returning to the heart
16. The tricuspid valve is located between the: right atrium and right ventricle
17. Cardiac output is: the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle per minute, about 5 liters in the average adult
18. Which of the following is not true of veins? They have a thicker tunica media than do arteries.
Arteries have the thickest due to the fact that they need to be able to resist great pressures generated by ventricular systole. The tunica media plays and important role in the arteries by maintaining blood pressure and controlling blood distribution.

19. Another name for the visceral pericardium is the: epicardium
20. Another name for the parietal pericardium is the: parietal pericardium is not known by another name
True 21. A heart attack that causes injury to the myocardium will weaken the heart’s ability to pump blood.
True 22. Valves are important in keeping the blood flow in the heart going in only one direction.
True 23. Both a myocardial infarction and angina pectoris are a result of an insufficient amount of oxygen getting to the heart muscle
True 24. The intercalated disks that link the heart cells assist in the efficient conduction of the heart contraction.
False 25. An unusual P wave tracing on an ECG would indicate a problem with ventricular depolarization.A P wave occurs with depolarization of the atria.
False 26. The T wave tracing measures atrial repolarization.The T wave results from electrical activity generated by repolarization of the ventricles.
False 27. Repolarization occurs just before contraction.Repolarization begins just before the relaxation phase of the cardiac muscle activity.
True 28. Arteries always carry blood away from the heart.
False 29. Pulmonary circulation begins in the pulmonary artery or right ventricle and ends in the pulmonary vein or right atrium.Pulmonary circulation- Blood moves from the right atrium to the right ventricle and then to the pulmonary artery to lung arterioles and capillaries. There, the exchange of gasses between the blood and air takes place, converting the deep crimson color typical of venous blood to the scarlet color of arterial blood. This oxgenated blood then flows through lung venules into pulmonary veins and returns to the left atrium of the heart. From the left atrium, it enters the left ventricle, from which it will once again be pumped throughtout the body in the systemic circulation
True 30. The ductus venosus connects the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava.
False 31. The foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus allow the blood in the fetus to bypass the immature liver.
False 32. Blood pressure is highest in the aorta and lowest in the capillaries.Blood pressure is the highest in the aorta and the lowest in the superiour and inferior vena cava.
False 33. An increase in heart rate always leads to an increase in blood pressure.A change in the heart rate could increase the blood pressure only if stroke volume hasn't been reached. So basically a change producing a similiar change in blood pressure depends on whether the stroke volume has changed and in which direction.
False 34. In general, as blood viscosity drops, blood pressure increases.If blood viscosity (thickness) decreases then blood pressure will decrease.
False 35. One function of arteries is to serve as blood reservoirs.

True 36. In the capillaries, glucose and carbon dioxide move in opposite directions.
True 37. The apical beat of the heart can be heard between the 5th and 6th ribs.
False 38. The coronary sinus carries blood from the aorta to the muscle of the heart.
False 39. The P wave, QRS complex, and T wave in an ECG all record depolarizations in different parts of the heart.
True 40. Both arteries and veins have the ability to dilate and constrict to regulate the amount of blood passing through them.

Fetal Circulation

external image Stage13_bloodflow.jpg
Hepatic Portal System
external image hepatic_portal_system_labeled_medium_prod?layer=comp&wid=444&hei=444&fmt=jpeg&qlt=95,1&op_sharpen=1&resMode=bicub&op_usm=0.5,0.2,0,0&iccEmbed=0&bgc=0xdedede&bgColor=0xdedede
external image conduction.jpg

Tracing the flow of blood through the heart isn't as simple as it may seem. The heart is a complex organ, using four chambers, four valves and multiple blood vessels to provide blood to the body. The flow through the heart is equally complex, with blood moving through the heart, then the lungs, before returning again to the heart. Blood returns to the heart from the body via two large blood vessels, called the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. This blood carries little oxygen, as it is returning from the body where oxygen is used. The blood first enters the right atrium. It then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. When the heart beats, the ventricle pushes the blood through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonic artery. This artery is unique: It is the only artery in the human body that carries oxygen-poor blood.
The pulmonic artery carries blood to the lungs where it “picks up” oxygen, and leaves the lungs and returns to the heart through the pulmonic vein. The blood enters the left atrium, then descends through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.The left ventricle then pumps blood through the aortic valve, and into the aorta, the blood vessel that leads to the rest of the body.

practice heart


Match each of the terms with its definition or description.
parietal pericardium
tricuspid valve
bicuspid valve
chordae tendineae

1. Innermost layer of the heart wall

2. Valve separating the right atrium from the right ventricle

3. Valve separating the left atrium from the left ventricle

4. Receiving chambers of the heart

5. Fibrous sac surrounding the heart

6. Valve between a ventricle and an artery

7. Discharging chambers of the heart

8. Stringlike structures that attach to the atrioventricular valves of the heart

9. Muscle layer of the heart

Match the structure with the description.
right atrium
aortic semilunar valve
right ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
left atrium
left ventricle
pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve
pulmonary vein
mitral valve
inferior vena cava

10. Blood passing through the tricuspid valve enters this chamber

11. Valve that prevents blood from falling back into the left ventricle

12. Chamber that pushes blood through the aortic semilunar valve when contracted

13. Valve through which the left ventricle pushes blood into an artery

14. Blood vessel from which blood empties into the right atrium

15. Blood vessel that returns blood to the right atrium

16. Chamber that blood from the pulmonary vein enters

17. Valve that prevents blood from falling back into the right ventricle

18. Valve that blood in the left ventricle passes through

19. Valve that blood in the right ventricle passes through

20. Heart chamber into which blood from the superior vena cava enters

Trace a drop of blood from the superior vena cava to the aorta through the structures below. Put the #1 by the first structure, #2 by the second, and so on until all 11 structures are numbered in the correct sequence.

21. Pulmonary artery

22. Tricuspid valve

23. Pulmonary vein

24. Mitral valve

25. Right ventricle

26. Left ventricle

27. Lungs

28. Aortic semilunar valve

29. Pulmonary semilunar valve

30. Left atrium
Cardiovascular 55 Vocabulary terms - check quizlet - Dr. T

Go to Evolve, Click on The Fundementals Book. Click on Course Documents, Click on Resources, then Click on Animations (other). Scroll downm to Number 21 and click on Measuring Vital Signs. There are several animations there that show how the blood moves through the heart.
This is a link to a website that has pictures and diagrams of the heart, diseased hearts, development of a blood clot, etc. I hope that you find them interesting and helpful.

Chapter 12The cardiovascular system
cardiovascular system.gif

Vocabulary for chapter 12
Apex- blunt point of the lower edge of the heart that lies on the diaphragm, pointing toward the left.
Atria-2 upper chambers (receiving chambers)
Ventricles- 2 lower chambers (discharging chambers)
Myocardium- the cardiac muscle tissue of the heart chamber wall
Endocardium- thin layer of very smooth tissue
Endocarditis- inflammation of the lining
Thrombus- clot
Pericardium- Covering of the heart
Visceral Pericardium- the inner layer of the pericardium
Parietal pericardium- the outer layer of the pericardium
Pericarditis- inflammation of the pericardium
Systole- contractions of the heart
Diastole- relaxation
Atrio ventricular valves- the 2 valves that separate the atrial chambers from the ventricals
Bicuspid valve- 1 of the 2 AV valves, located between the left atrium and ventricle (sometimes called mitral)
Tricuspid valve- The valve located between the right atrium and ventricle
Chordae tendineae- Group of stringlike structures that attach the AV valves to the wall of the heart
Semilunar valves- located between either the ventricular chamber or the large artery that carries blood away from the heart
Superior vena cava- 1 of the 2 large veins returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
Inferior vena cava- 1 of the 2 large veins carrying blood into the right atrium
Pulmonary veins- Any vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Aorta- Main and largest artery in the body
Coronary circulation- delivery of oxygen and removal of waste product from the myocardium
Coronary arteries- the first artery to branch off the aorta, supplies blood to the myocardium
Embolism- obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the blood stream
Myocardial infarction- death of cardiac muscle cells resulting from inadequate blood supply as in coronary thrombosis
Angina pectoris- severe chest pain resulting when the myocardium is deprived of sufficient oxygen

The first You Tube Video

Chapter 11

Blood Cells and functions

Erythrcyte-oxygen and carbon dioxide transport
Neutrophil- immune disease (phagocytosis)
Eosinophil- Defense against parasites
Basophil- inflammatory response
B lymphocyte- antibody production
T lymphocyte- cellular immune response; destroys virally infected cells and cancer cells
Monocyte- immune defenses (phagocytosis)
Platelet- blood clotting


Types of Anemia

  1. Aplastic Anemia - Reduction in RBC numbers from destruction of elements in bone marrow. (Chemo, toxic chemicals)
  2. Hemorrhagic Anemia -Decrease in RBC numbers caused by hemorrhage from accidents, bleeding ulcers
  3. Pernicious Anemia - Deficiency of RBC's resulting from stomach lining's failure to produce Intrinsic factor (B12 deficiency)
  4. Iron Deficiency Anemia - Hemoglobin and RBC numbers below normal levels causing less oxygen transported to cell
5. Sickle Cell Anemia - Hereditary disease having abnormal type of hemoglobin

Anatomy chapter 11---my notes from Chapter 11!! Cynthia

Chapter 11: BloodVocabularyCorrine & Amanda
  • Agglutunate- [[#|antibodies]] causing [[#|antigens]] to clump or stick together
  • Albumin- one of several types of proteins normally found in blood plasma; helps thicken the blood
  • Anemia- deficient number of red blood cells or deficient hemoglobin
  • Antibody- substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body
  • Antigen- substance that, when introduced into the body, causes formation of [[#|antibodies]] against it
  • Aplastic Anemia- blood disorder characterized by a low red blood cell count; caused by destruction of myeloid tissue in the bone marrow
  • Basophil- white blood cell that stains readily with basic dyes
  • Buffy Coat- thin layer of white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets located between red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in a centrifuged sample of blood
  • Carbinohemoglobin- the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin
  • Differential WBC Count- proportion of each type of WBC reported and a percentage of total WBC count
  • Embolism- Obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstream
  • Embolus- a blood clot or other substance (bubble of air) that is moving in the blood and may block a blood vessel
  • Eosinophil- a white blood cell that are stained by eosin
  • Erythroblastosis Fetalis- hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
  • Erythrocyte- red blood cell
  • Fibrin- insoluble protein in clotted blood
  • Fibrinogen- A soluble blood protein that is converted to fibrin during [[#|blood clotting]]
  • Globulins- a type of plasma protein that includes antibodies
  • Hematocrit (Hct)- the volume percent of blood cells in whole blood
  • Hemoglobin- iron-containing protein in red blood cells
  • Hemorrhagic anemia- condition characterized by low oxygen carrying capacity of blood caused by decreased red blood cell life span and/or increased rate of red blood cell destruction
  • Heparin- substance obtained from the liver; inhibits blood clotting
  • International Normalized Ratio (INR)
  • Iron deficiency anemia- condition in which there are inadequate levels of iron in the diet so that less hemoglobin is produced; results in extreme fatigue
  • Leukemia- [[#|blood cancer]] characterized by an increase in [[#|white blood cells]]
  • Leukocyte- [[#|white blood cells]]
  • Leukocytosis- abnormally high white blood cell numbers in the blood
  • Leukopenia- an abnormal low white blood cell numbers in the blood
  • Lymphocyte- type of white blood cell; b cell or t cell
  • Macrophage- phagocytic cells in the immune system
  • Monocyte­- a phagocyte
  • Myeloid- tissue pertaining to bone marrow
  • Neutrophil- white blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes
  • Oxyhemoglobin- hemoglobin combined with oxygen
  • Pernicious anemia- deficiency of red blood cells resulting from a lack of [[#|vitamin B12]]
  • Phagocyte- white blood cell that engulfs microbes and digests them
  • Plasma- the liquid part of the blood
  • Plasma protein- any of several proteins normally found in the plasma; includes albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
  • Platelet- fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting
  • Polycythemia- an excessive number of red blood cells
  • Prothrombin- a protein present in normal blood that is required for blood clotting
  • Prothrombin activator- a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot
  • Serum- blood plasma minus its clotting factors, still contains antibodies
  • Sickle cell anemia- severe, possible fatal, hereditary disease caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin
  • Sickle cell trait- when only one defective gene is inherited and only a small amount of hemoglobin that is less soluble than usual is produced
  • Thrombin- protein important in blood clotting
  • Thrombocyte- also called a platelet; plays a role in blood clotting
  • Thrombosis- formation of a clot in a blood vessel
  • Thrombus- stationary blood clot
  • Total WBC count- the total number of WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood

Chapter 11 vocab. on quizlet (Corrine HELPED)

The blood consists of a suspension of special cells in a liquid called plasma. In an adult man, the blood is about 1/12th of the body weight and this corresponds to 5-6 litres. Blood consists of 55 % plasma, and 45 % by cells called formed elements. The blood performs a lot of important functions. By means of the hemoglobin contained in the erythrocytes, it carries oxygen to the tissues and collects the carbon dioxide (CO2). It also conveys nutritive substances (e.g. amino acids, sugars, mineral salts) and gathers the excreted material which will be eliminated through the renal filter. The blood also carries hormones, enzymes and vitamins. It performs the defense of the organism by mean of the phagocitic activity of the leukocytes, the bactericidal power of the serum and the immune response of which the lymphocytes are the protagonists. (meghan)

Three main types of formed elements of blood and their several subtypes:

1. Red Blood Cells (RBC) - erythrocytes - Have several functions, the most important is to help transport carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is a waste product produced by the energy-producing processes of all living cells, and can be harmful. The red blood cell is "caved in" on both sides so that the center is thin and the edges are thicker. Has a red pigment (hemoglobin) which unites with oxgen to for oxyhemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin makes it possible to transport large quanities of oxygen to body cells. Hemoglobin can also help carry CO2, only in small portions, which then forms carbaminohemoglobin.
2. White Blood Cells (WBC)- leukocytes- Have a function that is vital, they defend the body from cancer cells that form inside our tissues and from microorganisms that have succeeded in invading our body. WBC's are broken down into two different types:
a. Granular Leukocytes: (having granules in their cytoplasm)
(1) Neutrophils- Most numerous, called phagocytes, protect the body from invading microorganisms by taking them into their own cell bodies and digesting them by the process of phagocytosis.
(2) Eosinophils- weak phagocytes. Most important function is to protect against infections caused by parasitic worms.
(3) Basophils- found in peripheral blood, they secrete a horomone called histamine, which is released during and inflammatory reaction. They also produce heparin, which is a potent anticogulant. Heparin helps prevent blood from clottinng as it flows through the blood vessels of the body.
b. Nongranular leukocytes (do not have granules in their cytoplasm)
(1) Lymphocytes- Help protect us against infections. Function in the immune mechanism, the complex process that makes us immune to infectious diseases.
B Lymphocytes secrete specialized proteins, called antibodies, which specifically act to destroy particular bacteria, viruses, or chemical toxins.
T. Lymphocytes protect us by directly attacking virally infected or cancerous cells.
-->The lymphocytes are formed by lymphatic tissue, which is primarly located in the lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
(2) Monocytes- are the largest leukocytes. They are aggressive phagocyes, they are capable of engulfing larger bacterial organisms and cancer cells. Macrophages are specialized monocytes that grow several times their original size after migrating out of the blood stream.
3. Platelets- thrombocytes- essential part of blood clotting, or coagulation.




Chapter 11: Blood

This is the process of blood clot formation:

  • The first step in the chain of blood clot formation is that some kind of injury to a blood vessel that makes a rough spot in its lining.Normally the lining is extremely smooth.
  • Almost immediately, damaged cells in the injured vessel wall release certain clotting factors in plasma. These factors rapidly react with other factors already present in the plasma to form prothombin activator.
  • When this happens, the platelets become sticky at the point of injury and soon accumulate near the opening in the broken blood vessel, forming a soft, temporary platelet plug.
  • If there is a normal amount of calcium in the blood, prothombin activator triggers the next step of clotting by converting prothombin (a protein in normal blood) into thrombin.
  • In the last step thrombin reacts with fibrinogen (a normal plasma protein) to form fibrin. Fibrin looks like a tangle of fine mesh like fibers. The fibrin forms a meshlike shape that traps the RBC's in the tangle.
  • This meshlike structure is the blood clot that forms a more long-term seal of damaged blood vessel

external image blood-type-overview.jpg
Kelly Murphy

Chapter 11: Blood

1. Plasma:
consists of blood without the blood cells and clotting factors
carries almost all of the food to the cells
carries almost all of the oxygen to the cells
all of the above

2. Plasma contains:
digested food
metabolic waste products
all of the above

3. Serum:
is made from blood plasma
contains fibrinogen
has no antibodies
all of the above

4. The function of albumin is to:
assist in the formation of a blood clot
thicken the blood
act as an enzyme for the breakdown of carbonic acid
assist in the fighting of infection

5. Globulins:
assist in the formation of a blood clot
thicken the blood
assist in fighting infection
none of the above

6. The approximate number of red blood cells in a cubic millimeter of blood is:

7. The approximate number of white blood cells in a cubic millimeter of blood is:

8. The approximate number of platelets in a cubic millimeter of blood is:

9. Myeloid tissue is:
also called lymphoid tissue
also called red bone marrow
important in the formation of blood cells
both b and c above

10. Red bone marrow is found in greatest amounts in the:
sternum and hipbone
clavicle and vertebrae
femur and tibia
humerus and ulna

11. The blood cells with the longest circulating life span are the:
red blood cells
granular white blood cells
nongranular white blood cells
both b and c have equal life spans
**Nongranular WBC's can live past 6 months, RBC's live about 120 days. Granular WBC's only live a few days.
12. The red blood cell:
has no nucleus
is spherical in shape to increase its surface area
is important in carrying metabolic waste to the kidney
all of the above

13. The red blood cell:
assists in transporting carbon dioxide to the lungs
contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen
has a unique shape to increase its surface area
all of the above

14. Polycythemia can be caused by:
too few red blood cells
too little hemoglobin in the blood cells
too many red blood cells being made
both a and b above

15. Anemia can be caused by:
too few red blood cells
too little hemoglobin in the blood cells
too many red blood cells being made
both a and b above

16. Pernicious anemia is caused by:
severe hemorrhage
lack of vitamin B12
an insufficient amount of iron in the diet
radiation or chemical damage to bone marrow

17. Which of the following describes the layering, in order from top to bottom, of a test tube of blood that has been “spun down” in a centrifuge?
plasma, red blood cells, buffy coat
buffy coat, plasma, red blood cells
plasma, buffy coat, red blood cells
red blood cells, buffy coat, plasma

18. The blood component with the highest density is:
white blood cells
red blood cells
**45% of blood volume is RBC's
19. Which white blood cells are phagocytes?
T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
all of the above

20. Which white blood cells produce antibodies?
T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes

21. Which white blood cells directly attack microbes?
T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes

22. Which white blood cells help protect the body from parasites?

23. Which white blood cells secrete heparin?

24. Leukopenia:
refers to an excess of white blood cells
is characteristic of people with leukemia
is characteristic of people with AIDS
both a and b above

25. Injury to a blood vessel or damage to a platelet can cause the formation of:
prothrombin activator

26. In order for thrombin to be formed:
fibrinogen must be present
sodium must be present
potassium must be present
calcium must be present

27. At the point of injury, platelets:
become sticky and accumulate near the opening
release thrombin
release fibrin
both a and c above

28. In the final step in the blood-clotting process:
prothrombin reacts with fibrin to form fibrinogen
thrombin reacts with fibrinogen to form fibrin
prothrombin reacts with fibrin to form fibrinogen
prothrombin activator reacts with prothrombin to form thrombin

29. Vitamin K stimulates the liver to increase production of:
prothrombin activator

30. A thrombus is:
a clot that stays where it was formed
the same as an embolus
usually made of thrombin
a blood clot circulating in the bloodstream
More From Dr. Taylor's Test Bank

31. The blood type that has antigen A on the cell and anti-B body in the plasma is: Type A
32. The blood type with no antigens on the blood cell and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma is: Type O
33. The "universal donnor" blood type is: Type O
34. The "universal receipent" blood type is: Type A
35. Erythroblastosis fetalis: occurs in the case of an Rh-positive baby and a Rh-negative mother.
36. The most abundant type of solute in the blood plasma is: plasma proteins
37. A substance found in plasma but not is serum is: fibrinogen
38. Another term for red blood cells is: erythrocytes
39. Another term for White blood cells is: leukocytes
40. Another term for platelets is: thrombocytes
41. Which is the following is not a granular leukocyte: monocyte
42. Basophils and lymphocytes have this characteristic in common: both are leukocytes
43. Eosinophils and neurtophils have this characteristic in common: both are granular leukocytes
44. A patient with a thicker-than-normal buffy coat may have: an infection and leukemia
45. A patient with a thinner-than-normal buffy coat may have: leucopenia


1. Lymphocytes --> D. Immunity
2. Erythrocytes--> F. Anemia
3. Type AB--> H. Contains A and B antigens
4. Basophils--> A. Heparin
5. Leukemia--> G. Cancer
6. Platelets--> C. Clotting
7. Type O--> B. Contains anti-A and anti-B antibodies
8. Rh factor--> E. Erythroblastosis
9. Red bone marrow--> I. Myeloid tissue
10. Neutrophils -->J. Phagocytosis

Multiple Choice
11. When could difficulty with the Rh factor arise?
A. Rh-negative man and woman produce a child.
B. Rh-positive man and woman produce a child.
C. Rh-positive woman and an Rh-negative man produce a child.
D. Rh-negative woman and an Rh-positive man produce a child.

12. What is the primary function of hemoglobins?
A. fight infection
B. make blood clot
C. carry oxygen
D. transport blood

13. Are any of the following steps not involved in blood clot formation?
A. A blood vessel is injured and platelet factors are formed.
B. Thrombin is converted into prothrombin.
C. Fibrinogen is converted into fibrin.
D. All of the above are involved in blood clot formation

14. Which of the following substances is not found in serum?
A. clotting factors
B. water
C. hormones
D. all of the above

15. Which of the following substances is not found in blood plasma?
A. water
B. oxygen
C. hormones
D. none of the above
*A,B&C are all found in blood plasma

16. An allergic reaction may increase the number of
A. eosinophils.
B. neutrophils.
C. lymphocytes.
D. monocytes.
Eosinophils also react to parasites

17. What is a blood clot that is moving through the body called?
A. embolism
B. fibrosis
C. heparin
D. thrombosis

18. Which of the following statements is false?
A. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic defect.
B. Leukemia is characterized by a low number of WBCs.
C. Polycythemia is characterized by an abnormally high number of erythrocytes.
D. Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B12.

19. Deficiency in the number of erythrocytes is called
A. leukemia.
B. anemia.
C. polycythemia.
D. leukopenia.

20. Which of the following statements (if any) do not describe a characteristic of leukocytes?
A. They are disk-shaped cells that do not contain a nucleus.
B. They have an ability to fight infection.
C. They are produced in myeloid and lymphatic tissue.
D. All of the above statements are characteristic of leukocytes.

21. After delivery, Mrs. Larson begins to hemorrhage. Her red blood cell count falls seriously low. From the lab values listed below, what values would be considered normal red blood cell count per cubic millimeter of blood for Mrs. Larson?
A. 10,000
B. 5,000,000
C. 300,000
D. 7500

22. Anemia
A. describes the inability of the blood to carry sufficient O2 to body cells.
B. may be the result of an inadequate number of RBCs.
C. may be due to hemorrhage.
D. all of the above.

Mrs. Janet Larson’s blood type is O-positive and her husband Larry’s blood type is O-negative. Their newborn infant’s blood type is O-negative.
23. Is there any reason for concern because baby Larson’s blood type is O-negative?
A. Yes, an immediate transfusion should be ordered by the attending physician.
B. Types O-positive and O-negative are not compatible. Baby Larson will soon show signs of respiratory disease.
C. No concern is necessary.
D. The baby has erythroblastosis fetalis and, if untreated, will soon die.
In order to have erythroblastosis fetalis the mother must be RH negative and the father RH positive and it be the second child between them.
24. An abnormally low white blood cell count is referred to as Leukopenia, and an abnormally high white blood cell count is referred to as Leukocytosis.
25. The use of blood transfusions to increase oxygen delivery to muscles is called Blood doping.
26. In the process of blood clot formation, fibrinogen converts from a soluble substance to an insoluble tangle of fine threads composed of Fibrin, which trap blood cells to form a clot.
27. People with type B blood have antigens identified as Anti-A.
28. The liquid part of blood in which blood cells have been removed is called Plasma.
29. The two kinds of connective tissue that make blood cells for the body are Lymphatic and Myeloid tissue.
30. The formation of new blood cells is called Hemopoiesis.
31. There are two types of leukocytes that have the ability to destroy microorganisms by phagocytosis. These cells are called Neutrophils and Monocytes.
32. Blood that contains an antigen called the Rh factor is called Rh-positive blood.
33. The medical test in which a centrifuge is used to separate whole blood into formed elements and a liquid fraction is called Hematocrit.
End of class review questions 6.6.12
Blood type that has antigen a on the cell land anti b antibody in the plasma: type a
Blood type with no [[#|antigens]] on the blood cell and both anti a and b antibodies in the plasma: type o
Universal donor: type O
Universal recipient: type AB
Erythroblastosis fetalis: occurs in the case of an RH positive baby and an RH negative mother
Most abundant type of solute in the blood plasma is: plasma proteins
Substance found in plasma but not in serum is: fibrinogen
Another term for Red Blood Cell is: erythrocytes
Another term for platelets is: thrombocytes
Which of the following is not a granular leukocyte: monocyte
Basophils and lymphocytes have this character in common: both are leukocytes
Eosinophil’s and neutrophils have this character in common both leukocytes and granular
If a patient has a thicker than usual buffy coat: leukemia and infection
Thinner than normal buffy leucopenia
Erythroblastosis fetalis if: none of the above
Blood usually accounts for about 7-9% of body weight
What are produced by lymphatic tissue: lymphocytes and monocyte
[[#|Aplastic anemia]]: damage of blood forming elements in bone marrow
[[#|Sickle cell anemia]] can be caused by: inherited condition resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin
What are granular leukocytes: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, basophils
What are nongranular leukocytes: lymphocytes, monocyte